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Below is a non-exhaustive listing of the features available to a server instance, depending on the chosen configuration. The core feature of the CSS is that it uses dependency injection to configure its components, so any of the features below can always be adapted or replaced with custom components if required. It can also be used to configure dummy components for debugging, development, or experimentation purposes. See this tutorial and/or this example repository for more information on that.

To generate configurations with some of these features enabled/disabled, you can use the configuration generator.


Clients are identified based on the contents of DPoP tokens, as described in the Solid-OIDC specification.

The server also provides several dummy components that can be used here, to either always identify the client as a fixed WebID, or to allow the WebID to be set directly in the Authorization header. These can be configured by changing the ldp/authentication import in your configuration.


Two authorization mechanisms are implemented for determining who has access to resources:

Alternatively, the server can be configured to not have any kind of authorization and allow full access to all resources.

Solid Protocol

The Solid Protocol is supported.

Requests to the server support content negotiation for common RDF formats.

Binary range headers are supported.

ETag and Last-Modified headers are supported. These can be used for conditional requests.

PATCH requests targeting RDF resources can be made with N3 Patch or SPARQL Update bodies.

The server can be configured to store data in memory, on the file system, or through a SPARQL endpoint. Similarly, the locking system that is used to prevent data conflicts can be configured to store locks in memory, on the file system, or in a Redis store, or it can be disabled.

Multiple worker threads can be used when starting the server.

Account management

Accounts can be created on the server with which users can perform the following actions, through either a JSON or an HTML API:

  • Add email/password combinations which can be used to log in.
  • Create pods, which are containers on the server over which the user has full control.
  • Link WebIDs to the account. When using Solid-OIDC, the user can identify as any of these. For external WebIDs, the server requires the user to add a triple as identification, but this can be disabled if needed.
  • Create client credentials, which can be used to authenticate without using the browser. More information on these can be found here.
  • It is possible to use Solid-OIDC to limit access to certain parts of the account API. More information on this can be found here.

Using these accounts, the server can generate tokens to support Solid-OIDC authentication.


The server keeps track of the pod owners, which is a list of WebIDs which have full control access over all resources contained within. Owners can be added to and removed from a pod.

Pod URLs can be minted as either subdomain,, or suffix,

When starting the server, a configuration file can be provided to immediately create one or more accounts on the server with their own pods. See the documentation for more information.


CSS supports v0.2.0 of the Solid Notifications Protocol. Specifically it supports the Notification Types WebSocketChannel2023 and WebhookChannel2023.

More documentation on notifications can be found here.